本文是市場營銷專業的留學生Essay范例，題目是“Effect of Displaying Online Privacy Information on Purchasing Behaviour（網上隱私信息顯示對購買行為的影響）”,因特網正迅速成為世界上最大的公共電子市場。據估計，它將在全球范圍內達到5000萬人，并且客戶以每月10%的速度增長(Wang et al.， 1998)隱私是最重要的消費者權利之一，也是電子商務的重要組成部分。網上賣家需要消費者的個人數據來收集付款和交付產品。從商家的角度來看，這些信息對于保證和確認訂單是必要的。從消費者的角度來看，這是消費者的權利，他們提供的信息應該保密。這是客戶在電子商務中面臨的主要問題，因為在線公司沒有對他們的信息保密，并將這些信息披露給其他利益相關者，如政府、銀行和貨運服務提供商。如果網上商家采取公平的信息政策，可以降低這些信息被誤用的風險;通過這種策略，通過將個人數據的收集限制在與交易相關的范圍內，可以降低客戶信息泄露的風險。網上商家應該在其網站上發布隱私聲明，這是消費者的權利，這將有助于消費者了解披露個人信息的風險。但許多客戶并不重視這些隱私聲明，并在沒有研究它們的情況下同意這些聲明。由于消費者缺乏信任，消費者保護和隱私法律是電子商務發展的主要障礙。在現行的網絡法律體系中，消費者權利的定量化得到了有效的體現。(Hann et al.， 2002)。
The Internet is quickly becoming the world’s largest public electronic marketplace. It is estimated to reach 50 million people worldwide and customers are growing with the rate of 10% per month (Wang et al., 1998) Privacy is one of the most important consumer right and major part of e-commerce. Online sellers require personal data of consumer for collection of payments and delivery of products. From merchant perspective this information is consider necessary for assurance and confirmation of order. From customer perspective this is the right of consumer that the information they provide should be kept confidential. This is the major issue that customers are facing in e-commerce, because online companies do not kept their information secret and disclose this information to other stake holders like, government, banks and to cargo service providers. The risk of misusing this information can be lower if online merchants adopt fair information policy; through this policy the risk of leaking customer’s information can be lower by limiting the collection of personal data to the relevancy of transaction. It is the right of consumer that online merchants should place the privacy statement on their website which will help customer to know the risk of disclosing personal information. But many customers do not give value to these privacy statements and agree with these statements without studying them. For Lack of consumer trust, consumer protection and privacy laws are major barriers in the growth of e-commerce. There are in efficient cyber laws prevailed in the system which denominate the consumer rights. (Hann et al., 2002).
This research will examine whether the efficient display of privacy information plays any role in making purchase decision by consumer. For this purpose previous researcher conducted a survey regarding online privacy and perceived risks associated with online shopping, and they steered an experiment in which participants are asked to take a purchase decision that will affect their private information. So we will structure the experiment as an online shopping experience at existing online merchants, and tested whether signals about the different levels of privacy protection among merchants would affect the participants’ price sensitivity and purchase decisions (Tsai et al., 2007)
本研究將探討個人隱私信息的有效顯示是否對消費者的購買決策起作用。為此，之前的研究人員進行了一項關于在線隱私和與在線購物相關的感知風險的調查，他們指導了一項實驗，要求參與者做出影響其私人信息的購買決定。因此，我們將把實驗結構為現有在線商家的在線購物體驗，并測試商家之間不同程度的隱私保護信號是否會影響參與者的價格敏感性和購買決定(Tsai et al.， 2007)。
Our research questions will be as follows:
Do consumers value privacy statements and privacy seals? If so, do they affect consumer disclosure of personal information?
We will guide the exploratory field experiment to determine these matters. Specifically, we will mix gifts to ensure privacy between the three levels of treatments and how consumers react to each level. It will be three steps:
any information with regard to the adoption of fair information policy will be through the provision of customers
information concerning the privacy of your data will be made available to the client
accumulation of the privacy statement, privacy statement is displayed
This research will provide the pressures that arise between the collection and use of personal information that people during the most consumer transactions, and privacy. In today’s world, increasingly competitive strategies for successful companies rely on large amounts of customer data. Oddly enough, the same information practices that provide value to organizations also raised concerns about the privacy of individuals.
This study assumes that organizations can address these issues and getting the business advantage through customer retention. On personal data given by customers businesses make decision what benefits should be given to customers, and sometimes government require personal data of online customers for making regulatory policies.
Our first objective is to determine that the effect of online privacy on purchase behavior of consumer either it affects positively or negatively?
Our second objective would be to determine the impact of monetary benefits on disclosure.
Our Third objective will be to determine the impact of information incentive on disclosure.
Literature Review 文獻綜述
Many researchers worked on determining the effect of online privacy on purchase behavior. Their research finding shows that implementation of fair information policy impacts positively on purchase behavior of consumer. It means that if online merchants adopt fair information policy to keep the personal information of consumer confidential then consumer respond positively in purchase behavior.
In this regard (Tsai et al., 2007) conduct a research to determine the impact of online privacy on purchase behavior. The goal of this study was to determine whether the availability of private information affects purchasing decision of consumer. He used Privacy Finder to display the privacy policies of certain online shopping sites in a fashion that, possibly, reduces the gap of information asymmetry. In his study he found that participants were affected by having this additional information displayed to them. Their experiment shows that that once privacy information is made more visible, people will tend to purchase from merchants that offer more privacy protection and even pay a premium to purchase from such merchants. This was true for both privacy-sensitive and non-privacy-sensitive items.
Another research was conducted by (Brown & Muchira, 2004) in which they steered a relationship between online privacy and purchase decision of consumer Results of a survey study indicate that both errors and invasion of privacy have a significant negative relationship with online purchase behavior. Unapproved use of secondary data seems to have little impact on purchase decision. Data used in this study was collected through questionnaire survey and sampling technique was used convenience sampling. Sampling frame uses in this research was under graduate and post graduate students in East Coast University of Australia and hypothesis was tested using ANOVA. Unauthorized use of data is considered as independent variable while invasion of privacy and errors is treated as dependent variable.
(Brown & Muchira, 2004)進行了另一項研究，他們引導了在線隱私和消費者購買決定之間的關系。一項調查研究的結果表明，錯誤和隱私侵犯與在線購買行為有顯著的負相關關系。未經批準的二手數據的使用似乎對購買決策沒有什么影響。本研究采用問卷調查的方式收集數據，采用方便抽樣的方法。本研究使用的抽樣框架是澳大利亞東海岸大學的本科生和研究生，并使用方差分析對假設進行檢驗。將未經授權使用數據作為自變量，將侵犯隱私和錯誤作為因變量。
To study the consumer willingness to provide private information (Phelps et al., 2000) conducted a study finding of research shows that there is a strong relationship between level of concern of customers regarding usage of their private information and their purchase intention. Data was collected through questionnaire surveys and ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis.
為了研究消費者提供私人信息的意愿(Phelps et al.， 2000)進行了一項研究，研究結果表明，消費者對其私人信息使用的關注程度與他們的購買意愿之間存在很強的關系。數據收集通過問卷調查和方差分析來檢驗假設。
To investigate the difference in purchase intention of peoples who belongs to different demographics and culture (Bellman et al., n.d.) investigated that to build the trust of consumer internet companies should be allocated on the system of data collection in accordance with customer needs. Research shows that most customers have concerns with privacy regulations prevailing in the country. There is a difference in management and law enforcement on a company’s culture.
為了調查屬于不同人口統計學和文化背景的人在購買意愿上的差異(Bellman et al.， n.d.)研究建立消費者互聯網公司的信任應該根據客戶需求在數據收集系統上進行分配。研究表明，大多數客戶對中國現行的隱私規定感到擔憂。企業文化在管理和執法方面存在差異。
(Jordaan, 2007) found that the ability to collect and sustain personal information does not show that direct marketers are able to maintain true and honest relationship with customers. Direct marketing organizations need to be careful regarding consumers’ collected information and attend to several privacy issues if they want to facilitate relational exchanges between themselves and consumers. A probability (systematic) sampling design was used to draw a representative sample of households with listed telephone numbers in the different provincial Telkom telephone directories. The sample units were randomly selected, after which 800 telephone interviews were conducted with adults from these households.
(Papacharissi & Fernback, 2005) Evaluate the effectiveness of privacy statements and focus on language, format, assurances of privacy, and the complexity of the legal and technical aspects, and the perceived credibility of the statement. Analysis of the content of privacy statements that data privacy is always protected the interests of customers as it is a legal guarantees to the companies concerned. Instead, we found that although the data was widespread and extensive in most major business portals, such as Google, Yahoo and AOL, several smaller trading portals don’t feature them at all, or at least featured much less widespread, and reassure versions. The main gates were much more likely to feature lengthier statements, certified by TRUSTe, perhaps because they had the personnel to dedicate to this important task, and they can afford to provide full privacy disclosure
(Papacharissi & Fernback, 2005)評估隱私聲明的有效性，重點關注語言、格式、隱私保證、法律和技術方面的復雜性，以及聲明的感知可信度。分析私隱聲明的內容，認為資料私隱始終是保護客戶的利益，是對有關公司的一項法律保障。相反，我們發現，盡管這些數據在大多數主要的商業門戶網站(如谷歌、Yahoo和AOL)中廣泛存在，但一些較小的貿易門戶網站根本不采用這些數據，或者至少不采用廣泛得多的版本。主大門更有可能采用由TRUSTe認證的較長的聲明，也許是因為他們有專人負責這項重要任務，而且他們有能力提供完全的隱私披露
UKthesis provides an online writing service for all types of academic writing. Check out some of them and don't hesitate to place your order.